“A Bridge Over Troubled Waters: Dispute Resolution in the Law of
International Watercourses and the Law of the Sea”

Monday, 25 September – Tuesday, 26 September 2017

Speakers

Monday, 25 September 2017

Welcome Address

Prof. Hélène Ruiz Fabri (Max Planck Institute Luxembourg)

Hélène Ruiz Fabri is Director of the MPI Luxembourg for Procedural Law, where she heads the Department of International Law and Dispute Resolution. Previously she was Professor at the Sorbonne Law School (University Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne) where she still teaches. She has also been Director of the Joint Institute of Comparative Law of Paris and Director of the Master 2 Degree Programme in International Economic Law. Her research spans WTO Law and International Dispute Resolution as well as Comparative and Constitutional Law. Privileging a comparative approach, she has focused on international courts and tribunals for years, following their multiplication during the 90’s. She has published extensively in these fields and has recently been awarded the CNRS Silver Medal for her achievements in research.

Panel I:
20 Years to the Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Decision: Developments in Adjudicating Transboundary Freshwater Disputes

Prof. Boldizsár Nagy (Central European University)

Boldizsár Nagy read law and philosophy and received his PhD in law at the Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE) in Budapest. He teaches international law and asylum law at the Central European University. He has acted as expert for the UN, the Council of Europe and the EU and was counsel for Hungary in the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project case in front of the ICJ. Ankara, Beijing, Brussels, Geneva, Kazan, Moscow, New York, Tblisi, Yekaterinburg and Yerevan are among his former teaching venues. He is one of the founders of the European Society of International Law and of the Refugee Law Reader. Most of his research centers on refugee law. Further details are available at his website: www.nagyboldizsar.hu

Mr Samuel Wordsworth (Essex Court Chambers)

Sam Wordsworth QC specialises in public international law and international arbitration. He is regularly instructed by Governments in international cases and regularly appears before international courts and tribunals including the International Court of Justice. He is also a Visiting Professor at Kings College, London. He is / has been instructed as counsel in many investment treaty disputes, and sits / has sat as arbitrator in certain cases.

Instructions in past and current cases of note so far as concerns this Conference include the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros case (for Slovakia), the Kishenganga case (for Pakistan), Certain Activities and the Road (for Costa Rica), Use of the Waters of the Silala (for Chile).

Prof. Cesare P.R. Romano (Loyola Marymount University)

Cesare P.R. Romano is Professor of Law and Joseph W. Fellow at Loyola Law School Los Angeles. In 1997, he co-founded the Project on International Courts and Tribunals, a joint undertaking of the Center on International Cooperation, New York University, and the Centre for International Courts and Tribunals at University College London, becoming an authority in the field of law and practice of international courts and tribunals. His most relevant publications are: Romano C./Alter K./Shany Y. (eds.), The Oxford University Press Handbook of International Adjudication, Oxford University Press, 2014; Terris, D./Romano, C./Swigart, L., The International Judge: An Introduction to the Men and Women who Decide the World’s Cases, Oxford University Press, 2007; Romano, C., The Peaceful Settlement of International Environmental Disputes: A Pragmatic Approach, Kluwer, 2000.

Judge Peter Tomka (ICJ)

Judge Peter Tomka has been a Member of the International Court of Justice since 6 February 2003. He served as its President between 2012 and 2015, having held previously the Office of Vice-President between 2009 and 2012. Prior to his election to the ICJ he was Member of the International Law Commission (1999‑2002). He acted as Agent of Slovakia before the ICJ in the Gabčíkovo‑Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia) case. In 1997 he chaired the Sixth (Legal) Committee of the General Assembly and from 2001‑2002 he was Chairman of the ad hoc Committee of Legal Advisors on Public International Law (CADHI) in the Council of Europe.

He is a Member of the Curatorium of the Hague Academy of International Law. Since 1994 he has been a Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and sat as Arbitrator in the Iron Rhine (Belgium/Netherlands) case and in the Indus Waters Kishenganga (Pakistan v. India) case. He is on the list of Arbitrators under Annex VII of UNCLOS and on the panel of Arbitrators maintained by ICSID.

During his diplomatic work he served as Legal Advisor of Slovakia’s Foreign Ministry and as its Permanent Representative to the United Nations. He taught international law at Charles University, Faculty of Law in Prague and in the Institute of International Relations at Comenius University in Bratislava.

He received his LLM, Doctor iuris and PhD in International Law at Charles University.

 

 

Panel II:
Procedural Principles of International Water Law and the Resolution of Transboundary Freshwater Disputes

Prof. Jutta Brunnée (University of Toronto)

Jutta Brunnée is Professor of Law and Metcalf Chair in Environmental Law, University of Toronto, where she previously served as Associate Dean of Law, Graduate (2010-2014) and Interim Dean (2014). She has published widely in the areas of Public International Law and International Environmental Law. She is co-author of International Climate Change Law (OUP 2017), and of Legitimacy and Legality in International Law: An Interactional Account (CUP 2010), which was awarded the American Society of International Law’s 2011 Certificate of Merit for preeminent contribution to creative scholarship. She served on the Board of Editors of the American Journal of International Law (2006-2016) and was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 2013.

Prof. Owen McIntyre (University College Cork)

Owen McIntyre is Professor and Director of Research at the School of Law, University College Cork. His principal area of interest is Environmental Law, with a particular research focus on International Water Law. He serves on the editorial boards of a number of Irish and international journals and is widely published in his specialist areas, including a book on Environmental Protection of International Watercourses under International Law (Ashgate, 2007), recently translated and published in China (IPPH Publishing, Beijing, 2014). Since 2010, he has served as Chair of the IUCN World Commission on Environmental Law’s Specialist Group on Water and Wetlands, and in 2011 was appointed to the Global Faculty of the UNESCO Centre for Water Law, Policy & Science, University of Dundee. Since 2004, he has been a member of the Project Complaints Mechanism of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and in 2008 he was designated a member of the Scientific Committee of the European Environment Agency as an expert on European and International Environmental Law. In 2013 Prof McIntyre was appointed by the Irish Government to the statutory Aquaculture Licences Appeals Board.

Judge Awn Al-Khasawneh (Doughty Street Chambers; ICJ (formerly))

Panel III:
The Role of Water Agreements and Institutions in the Resolution of Transboundary Freshwater Disputes

Prof. Alan Boyle (University of Edinburgh)

Alan Boyle was Professor of Public International Law at the University of Edinburgh, School of Law from 1995 until 2017. He taught international law, international environmental law, and law of the sea. Publications include International Law and the Environment (with Catherine Redgwell) (4th edn, OUP, 2018) and The Making of International Law (with Christine Chinkin) (OUP, 2007). He is a barrister and continues to practise international law from Essex Court Chambers, London. Professor Boyle has appeared as counsel before the ICJ, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, and UNCLOS arbitral tribunals.

Prof. Itay Fishhendler (Hebrew University of Jerusalem)

Itay Fishhendler heads the Environmental and Planning Program at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. His research interests focus on environmental conflict resolution, natural resources governance, and decision-making under conditions of political and environmental uncertainties. He is a leading scholar on transboundary water institutions and Middle Eastern water policy, and has published over than 40 articles in leading public policy, conflict resolution, geography, ecological economics, and environmental journals.

Itay is now engaged in research related to the politics of energy infrastructure and energy diplomacy, including energy sanctions. Many of Itay’s studies take a critical approach, often by the use of discourse analysis and content analysis, of planning and building protocols of national infrastructure, such as energy and water.

Ms Judith Levine (PCA)

Judith Levine is Senior Legal Counsel at the Permanent Court of Arbitration. She was Registrar in the South China Sea arbitration, the Atlanto-Scandian herring arbitration and the Abyei arbitration and has assisted tribunals in some of the world’s largest investor-state and commercial cases. Judith is a visiting lecturer at King’s College London. Prior to joining the PCA, Judith practised arbitration in New York for five years at White & Case. In 2002-2003, Judith clerked at the ICJ. In Australia she was an adviser to the Attorney-General, an associate at the High Court of Australia, and lecturer in contract law at the University of New South Wales. Judith has a BA/LLB (UNSW, University Medal) and an LLM (NYU, Fulbright/Hauser Global Scholar).

Prof. Laurence Boisson de Chazournes (University of Geneva)

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes is Professor at the University of Geneva and the Director of the Platform for International Water Law (Geneva Water Hub: https://www.genevawaterhub.org/fr). She has widely published in the areas of international environmental law, international water law and dispute settlement. Laurence Boisson de Chazournes received the Elizabeth Haub Prize for Environmental Law (2008) and she is a member of the Global High-Level Panel on Water and Peace. Since 2011, she has been a member of the Human Rights Council Advisory Committee. A Senior Counsel to the World Bank between 1995 and 1999, Laurence Boisson de Chazournes has since then advised international organizations, States and private entities. She also acts as an arbitrator in investor-State disputes.

Dr Komlan Sangbana (University of Geneva)

Komlan Sangbana (Ph.D., Faculty of Law, University of Geneva) is Senior Research Fellow at the Platform for International Water Law (Geneva Water Hub / University of Geneva). He also serves as Consultant for the Secretariat of the Convention on Protection and use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, supporting the Convention activities in West and Central Africa region. He has acted in several occasion as a Legal expert with international institutions such as Green Cross International, WATERLEX and Global Water Partnership on projects relating to the governance of transboundary basins in Africa.

Panel IV:
Current Transboundary Freshwater Disputes - North Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia

Prof. Laurence Boisson de Chazournes (University of Geneva)

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes is Professor at the University of Geneva and the Director of the Platform for International Water Law (Geneva Water Hub: https://www.genevawaterhub.org/fr). She has widely published in the areas of international environmental law, international water law and dispute settlement. Laurence Boisson de Chazournes received the Elizabeth Haub Prize for Environmental Law (2008) and she is a member of the Global High-Level Panel on Water and Peace. Since 2011, she has been a member of the Human Rights Council Advisory Committee. A Senior Counsel to the World Bank between 1995 and 1999, Laurence Boisson de Chazournes has since then advised international organizations, States and private entities. She also acts as an arbitrator in investor-State disputes.

Dr Salman M.A. Salman (International Water Resources Association)

Salman M. A. Salman is the Editor-in-Chief of International Water Law journal, and a Fellow with the International Water Resources Association (IWRA). Until 2009 he served as the World Bank Adviser on Water Law. Prior to that he worked as a Legal Office with the International Fund for Agricultural Development of the United Nations (IFAD) in Rome, Italy, and taught law at the University of Khartoum in Sudan.

Dr Salman has published extensively on issues related to water law and policy. More about his work and publications can be accessed at www.salmanmasalman.org.

Prof. Ashok Swain (Uppsala University)

Ashok Swain is a Professor of Peace and Conflict Research and the Director of Research School of International Water Cooperation at Uppsala University, Sweden. He received his PhD from the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi in 1991, and since then he has been teaching at the Uppsala University. He has been a Mac Arthur Fellow at the University of Chicago, visiting fellow at UN Research Institute for Social Development, Geneva; and visiting professor at University Witwatersrand, University of Science, Malaysia, University of British Columbia, University of Maryland, Stanford University, McGill University and Tufts University. He has written extensively on new security challenges, environment, conflict and peace, and water sharing issues.

Prof. Alistair Rieu-Clarke (University of Dundee)

Alistair Rieu-Clarke is a Professor of law at Northumbria University, Newcastle. His research interests focus on transboundary water cooperation, sustainable development and international environmental law. He has published and edited over 55 books and articles on these subjects. In recent years, his research has explored the role and relevance of both the UN Watercourses Convention and the UNECE Water Convention; as well as the application of international law within specific transboundary river basins such as the Mekong and the Nile. Alistair also advises international organisations and governments on matters relating to international law and transboundary waters, and he has a particular interest in matters concerning treaty implementation and compliance.

Tuesday, 26 September 2017

Panel I:
International Procedural Law Before the ICJ, the ITLOS and Annex VII Arbitral Tribunals

Judge Rüdiger Wolfrum (ITLOS)

Prof. Marcelo Kohen (Graduate Institute Geneva)

Professor of International Law at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Marcelo Kohen is Titular Member of the Institut de Droit international and its Secretary General since 2015. He has worked as legal counsel and advocate for a number of States before the International Court of Justice, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea and other tribunals. He also acts as an arbitrator in ICSID and UNCITRAL cases. He has been visiting professor at several European Universities and Rapporteur or Co-rapporteur for the International Law Association, the Council of Europe and the Institut de Droit International. He was one of the founders of the Latin American Society of International Law and served as its Secretary-General until 2015. He is the author of many publications in the field of International Law, in English, French and Spanish. He was awarded the Paul Guggenheim Prize in 1997 for his book Possession contestée et souveraineté territoriale.

Mr Paul Reichler (Foley Hoag LLP)

Paul Reichler is one of the world's most experienced advocates before international courts and tribunals, representing sovereign States in international litigation and arbitration for over 30 years. He began in 1984 as counsel for Nicaragua in its landmark case against the United States. Before the ICJ, he has also represented Nicaragua in the Navigational Rights, Territorial and Maritime Delimitation; Certain Activities and Construction of a Road cases; Uruguay in the Pulp Mills Case; and Ecuador against Colombia in the Aerial Spraying of Pesticides case. He currently represents Somalia against Kenya, and Nicaragua in cases against Colombia and Costa Rica. Before ITLOS, he has represented Bangladesh and Ghana in maritime delimitation cases. In international arbitration, he has represented the Philippines, against China, Mauritius against the U.K., Bangladesh against India, Guyana against Suriname, Croatia against Slovenia and Djibouti against Eritrea. His cases have involved armed hostilities, international human and humanitarian rights, territorial sovereignty, land and maritime boundaries, and transboundary environmental harm, inter alia.

Sir Michael Wood (20 Essex Street; International Law Commission)

Sir Michael Wood is a member of the UN International Law Commission, and a Senior Fellow of the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge. He is a barrister at 20 Essex Street, London, where he practises in the field of public international law, including before international courts and tribunals. He was Legal Adviser to the UK’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office between 1999 and 2006, having joined as an Assistant Legal Adviser in 1970.

Panel II:
Choice of Means of Dispute Settlement in the Law of the Sea

Prof. Tullio Treves (Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP; ITLOS (formerly))

Tullio Treves, born in 1942, is Professor Emeritus of the State University of Milan. Judge of the International Tribunal for the Law of the sea from 1996 to 2011 and later twice Judge ad hoc. Member of the Institut de droit international and of the Curatorium of the Hague Academy of International Law. Arbitrator and counsel in State to State and investment disputes. Senior Public International Law Consultant, Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP.

Prof. Liesbeth Lijnzaad (Maastricht University)

Dr Liesbeth Lijnzaad is the Legal Adviser of the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs and head of its international law department. In that capacity she has acted as the Agent for the Netherlands in cases before the International Court of Justice, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the International Criminal Court as well as the US Supreme Court. As the Legal Adviser she participates in the 6th Committee of the UN General Assembly, the EU’s working group on International Law (COJUR) and the Comité Ad Hoc du Droit International (CAHDI) of the Council of Europe. She was the CAHDI chair for 2012 -2014. She was one of the vice-presidents of the 2011 International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent. On behalf of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, she is the Acting President of the Administrative Council of the Permanent Court of Arbitration since 2010. From 2010 - 2015, she was the co-chair of the UNGA’s Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction (BBNJ). She is a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and of the San Remo Institute of International Humanitarian Law. At this time, she is the candidate of the Kingdom of the Netherlands for the position of judge at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) in Hamburg – elections will take place in June 2017.

Professor dr E. Lijnzaad is also endowed professor Practice of International Law (part time) at Maastricht University. She is a member of the editorial board of the Netherlands International Law Review and a board member of the Royal Netherlands Association for International Law (KNVIR). Also she is a member of the Board of the Theo van Boven Fund of the University of Maastricht, and chairs the jury of the Maastricht Prize for International Law. She studied law and history, receiving master’s degrees in international law (1985) and Dutch law (1987) from the University of Amsterdam, and a PhD in international law from Maastricht University in 1994.

Prof. Natalie Klein (Macquarie University)

Natalie Klein is Professor at Macquarie Law School, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. She served as Dean of Macquarie Law School between 2011 and 2017, as well as Acting Head of the Department for Policing, Intelligence and Counter-Terrorism in 2013-2014. Professor Klein teaches and researches in different areas of international law, with a focus on law of the sea and international dispute settlement. Prior to joining Macquarie, Professor Klein worked for Debevoise & Plimpton LLP, served as counsel to the Government of Eritrea (1998-2002) and was a consultant in the Office of Legal Affairs at the United Nations. Her masters and doctorate were earned at Yale Law School and she is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Law.

Prof. Bernard H. Oxman (University of Miami)

Professor Bernard H. Oxman is the Richard A. Hausler Professor of Law at University of Miami School of Law. Professor Oxman served as associate dean of the Law School from 1987 to 1990, and currently is the Faculty Chair of the Law School's Master of Laws Program in Maritime Law. Before joining the University of Miami in 1977, he was Assistant Legal Adviser for Oceans, Environment, and Scientific Affairs of the U.S. Department of State. He served as United States Representative through almost the entire duration of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea and its preparatory negotiations, and chaired the English Language Group of the Conference Drafting Committee.

Having served as co-editor-in-chief of the American Journal of International Law (2003-2013) and as vice-president of the American Society of International Law, he has also been honoured by election to the Institut de Droit international, the American Law Institute, and the Council on Foreign Relations.

The only American lawyer ever appointed to serve as judge ad hoc of both the ICJ and the ITLOS, Professor Oxman has also served on various international arbitration tribunals in both public and private cases. He has also served as counsel in a number of international cases, most recently the South China Sea arbitration between the Philippines and China.

Panel III:
Global and Regional Actors in the Settlement of Law of the Sea Disputes

Prof. Shotaro Hamamoto (Kyoto University)

Professor of the Law of International Organizations, Graduate School of Law, Kyoto University. LL.B. (Kyoto), LL.M. (Kyoto), Docteur en droit (Paris II). Counsel and Advocate for the Japanese Government in Whaling in the Antarctic (ICJ, Australia v. Japan, New Zealand intervening, 2010-14), Hoshinmaru (ITLOS, Japan v. Russia, 2007), and Tomimaru (ITLOS, Japan v. Russia, 2007). Assistant for the Spanish Government in Fisheries Jurisdiction (ICJ, Spain v. Canada, 1997-98). Japanese Representative to the UNCITRAL WG II (Arbitration/Conciliation) (2010- ) and to the OECD Investment Committee (2011). Arbitrator, Japan Sports Arbitration Agency (2008-).

Prof. Esa Paasivirta (European Commission)

Esa Paasivirta is a legal adviser in the European Commission, Brussels. He obtained his Ph.D. in international law from the University of Cambridge, UK. He has worked especially in the areas of international law and external relations and published extensively in these areas. He is also an adjunct professor in the Faculty of Law at the University of Helsinki.

Prof. Rosemary Rayfuse (University of New South Wales)

Rosemary Rayfuse is Scientia Professor of International Law at UNSW Sydney (The University of New South Wales), Australia. She is the Swedish Research Council’s Kerstin Hesselgren Visiting Professor and Conjoint Professor in the Faculty of Law at Lund University, Sweden, and Visiting Professor at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Her research focuses on oceans governance, in particular in polar areas, high seas fisheries, protection of the marine environment in areas beyond national jurisdiction, and the normative effects of climate change on international law, topics on which she has produced more than 200 publications. She is a member of the IUCN Commission on Environmental Law and the Chair’s nominee on the ILA Committee on Sea Level Rise and International Law. She is on the editorial boards of a number of leading international journals and regularly advises governments, international organisations and non-governmental organisations.

Mr Michael Lodge (International Seabed Authority)

Michael W. Lodge is the Secretary-General of the International Seabed Authority. He received his LLB from the University of East Anglia, and MSc in marine policy from the London School of Economics and Political Science. He is a barrister of Gray’s Inn, London. He has served as Legal Counsel to the ISA; Counsellor to the Round Table on Sustainable Development, OECD; Legal Counsel to the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency. He has held appointments as a Visiting Fellow of Somerville College, Oxford and Associate Fellow of Chatham House. He is a member of the World Economic Forum Global Agenda Council on Oceans. He has published and lectured extensively on the international law of the sea, oceans policy and related issues.

Panel IV:
Case Study: Dispute Settlement in the Arctic

Prof. Erik Franckx (Vrije Universiteit Brussel)

Erik Franckx is full-time research professor, President of the Department of International and European Law, Faculty of Law and Criminology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

He has been appointed by Belgium as: expert in marine scientific research for use in special arbitration under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982 Convention) (2004 - ); expert in maritime boundary delimitation to the International Hydrographic Organization (2005 - ); member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (2006 - ); and arbitrator under the 1982 Convention (2014 - ).

He served as a consultant to governments (foreign as well as the three levels of the Belgian structure, i.e. the federal, regional and community level), international, supra‑national and non-governmental organizations.

Prof. David VanderZwaag (Dalhousie University)

David VanderZwaag holds the Canada Research Chair (Tier 1) in Ocean Law and Governance at Dalhousie University, Canada. He teaches international environmental law and serves as the Associate Director of the Marine & Environmental Law Institute. He is currently a member of the IUCN’s World Commission on Environmental Law (WCEL) and Co-chair of the WCEL’s Specialist Group on Oceans, Coasts & Coral Reefs.

He has authored over 150 papers in the marine and environmental law field. His most recent co-edited book publications are: Aquaculture Law and Policy: Global, Regional and National Perspectives (Edward Elgar, 2016); Routledge Handbook of National and Regional Ocean Policies (Routledge, 2015); and Polar Oceans Governance in an Era of Environmental Change (Edward Elgar, 2014).

Prof. Vyacheslav Gavrilov (Far Eastern Federal University)

Viatcheslav V. Gavrilov is a heard of the Chair of International Public and Private Law and Director of the Master Programs of School of Law at the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok, Russia). He received his PhD in Juridical Sciences from Kazan State University in 1994 and his S.J.D. in 2006. He is an author of many scientific publications devoted to actual problems of international public and private law, including two monographs and some textbooks. He was invited as a speaker and has participated in numerous of international conferences and programs in the USA, Canada, China, France, Hungary, Taiwan, Thailand, Spain, Indonesia Malaysia, Philippines, Cambodia, India and Japan. He is also a member of the Executive Committee of the Russian Association of International Law, member of Asian Society of International Law and co-founder and attorney of the Board of Lawyers “Etalon” in Vladivostok.

Mr Rolf Einar Fife (Ambassador of Norway to France)

Rolf Einar FIFE is Norway’s Ambassador to France and Monaco. He served 2002-2014 as the Director General of Legal Affairs of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Chair of the Council of Europe Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law 2008-2010. He has represented Norway in multilateral and bilateral negotiations and before international courts, including the International Court of Justice, the European Court of Human Rights and the WTO Appeals Body. He headed maritime delimitation negotiations with the Russian Federation (Barents Sea and Arctic Ocean treaties 2007 and 2010), with Denmark/Greenland/The Faroes (2006) and Iceland (2006). He headed the Norwegian team before the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. A graduate of the University of Oslo, he worked at the Polar Department, Ministry of Justice 1984/1985 and since 1985 at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, with postings in the Middle East 1988-1990 and at the Norwegian Mission to the UN, New York 1990-1993. At the Ministry of Foreign Affairs he headed various units in its Legal Department prior to becoming its head in January 2002. Visiting Fellow at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge 2009-2010. Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration.

Concluding Remarks

Prof. Sean D. Murphy (George Washington University)

Sean D. Murphy is the Patricia Roberts Harris Research Professor of Law at George Washington University Law School in Washington, D.C., where he teaches international law. He is also a Member of the U.N. International Law Commission, serving as its special rapporteur for crimes against humanity. Prior to entering academia, Professor Murphy worked in the Office of the Legal Adviser at the U.S. Department of State, specializing in oceans and international environmental law, international dispute resolution, and the law of war. His most recent book is International Law Relating to Islands (Martinus Nijhoff, forthcoming 2017), which is based on his lectures at The Hague Academy of International Law in 2016. He is President-elect of the American Society of International Law.